Subgingival Microbial Changes During the First 3 Months of Fixed Appliance Treatment in Female Adult Patients

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PMID PubMed identifier for scientific articles.
DOI Digital object identifier for electronic documents.
Guo R, Liu H, Li X, Yang Q, Jia L, Zheng Y, Li W
Current microbiology
Although periodontal diseases during fixed appliance treatment are a common issue, few studies have focused on the clinical and microbial factors associated with orthodontic appliances. Hence, we investigated changes in the subgingival microbial community and their association with periodontal changes at the early stage of fixed appliance treatment. Subgingival plaques from ten female patients with fixed appliances were obtained at three time points: before, 1 month and 3 months after the placement of the brackets (T0, T1 and T2). The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to analyze the microbial community of the subgingival plaque. The Plaque Index (PI) and Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) were also recorded. The GBI significantly increased at T2, and the PI showed a temporary increase without a significant difference. The alpha diversity indices were stable. However, the beta diversity was significantly higher at T2 compared to T0 and T1. The relative abundance of core microbiomes at the genus level was relatively stable. Four periodontal pathogens at the species level, including Prevotella intermedia (Pi), Campylobacer rectus (Cr), Fusobacterium nucleatum (Fn), and Treponema denticola (Td), increased without significant differences. The subgingival microbial community affected by fixed appliance treatment might cause transient mild gingival inflammation.

Experiment 1

Needs review

Curated date: 2021/01/10

Curator: WikiWorks

Revision editor(s): WikiWorks


Location of subjects
Host species Species from which microbiome was sampled. Contact us to have more species added.
Homo sapiens
Body site Anatomical site where microbial samples were extracted from according to the Uber Anatomy Ontology
Dental plaque Bacterial plaque,Plaque,Dental plaque,dental plaque
Condition The experimental condition / phenotype studied according to the Experimental Factor Ontology
Gingival disease disease of gingiva,disease or disorder of gingiva,disorder of gingiva,gingiva disease,gingiva disease or disorder,gingival disease,Gingival disease
Group 0 name Corresponds to the control (unexposed) group for case-control studies
Group 1 name Corresponds to the case (exposed) group for case-control studies
1 month after the placement of the brackets
Group 1 definition Diagnostic criteria applied to define the specific condition / phenotype represented in the case (exposed) group
subgingial microbial changes during fixed appliance treatment
Group 0 sample size Number of subjects in the control (unexposed) group
Group 1 sample size Number of subjects in the case (exposed) group
Antibiotics exclusion Number of days without antibiotics usage (if applicable) and other antibiotics-related criteria used to exclude participants (if any)
1 month

Lab analysis

Sequencing type
16S variable region One or more hypervariable region(s) of the bacterial 16S gene
Sequencing platform Manufacturer and experimental platform used for quantifying microbial abundance

Statistical Analysis

Statistical test
Significance threshold p-value or FDR threshold used for differential abundance testing (if any)
MHT correction Have statistical tests be corrected for multiple hypothesis testing (MHT)?

Alpha Diversity

Shannon Estimator of species richness and species evenness: more weight on species richness
Chao1 Abundance-based estimator of species richness
Simpson Estimator of species richness and species evenness: more weight on species evenness
Inverse Simpson Modification of Simpsons index D as 1/D to obtain high values in datasets of high diversity and vice versa
Richness Number of species

Signature 1

Needs review

Curated date: 2021/01/10

Curator: Rimsha Azhar

Revision editor(s): WikiWorks

Source: Figure 5

Description: Relative abundance of microbiota that showed statistically significant differences among three different time points

Abundance in Group 1: increased abundance in 1 month after the placement of the brackets

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Revision editor(s): WikiWorks