Effects of Gut Microbiota Manipulation by Antibiotics on Host Metabolism in Obese Humans: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial

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Reviewed Marked as Reviewed by Rimsha Azhar on 2021/02/09
PMID PubMed identifier for scientific articles.
DOI Digital object identifier for electronic documents.
URI Uniform resource identifier for web resources.
Reijnders D, Goossens GH, Hermes GD, Neis EP, van der Beek CM, Most J, Holst JJ, Lenaerts K, Kootte RS, Nieuwdorp M, Groen AK, Olde Damink SW, Boekschoten MV, Smidt H, Zoetendal EG, Dejong CH, Blaak EE
Cell metabolism
The gut microbiota has been implicated in obesity and cardiometabolic diseases, although evidence in humans is scarce. We investigated how gut microbiota manipulation by antibiotics (7-day administration of amoxicillin, vancomycin, or placebo) affects host metabolism in 57 obese, prediabetic men. Vancomycin, but not amoxicillin, decreased bacterial diversity and reduced Firmicutes involved in short-chain fatty acid and bile acid metabolism, concomitant with altered plasma and/or fecal metabolite concentrations. Adipose tissue gene expression of oxidative pathways was upregulated by antibiotics, whereas immune-related pathways were downregulated by vancomycin. Antibiotics did not affect tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, energy/substrate metabolism, postprandial hormones and metabolites, systemic inflammation, gut permeability, and adipocyte size. Importantly, energy harvest, adipocyte size, and whole-body insulin sensitivity were not altered at 8-week follow-up, despite a still considerably altered microbial composition, indicating that interference with adult microbiota by 7-day antibiotic treatment has no clinically relevant impact on metabolic health in obese humans.

Experiment 1

Reviewed Marked as Reviewed by Rimsha Azhar on 2021/02/09

Curated date: 2021/01/10

Curator: WikiWorks

Revision editor(s): WikiWorks


Location of subjects
Host species Species from which microbiome was sampled (if applicable)
Homo sapiens
Body site Anatomical site where microbial samples were extracted from according to the Uber Anatomy Ontology
Feces Cow dung,Cow pat,Droppings,Dung,Excrement,Excreta,Faeces,Fecal material,Fecal matter,Fewmet,Frass,Guano,Matières fécales@fr,Merde@fr,Ordure,Partie de la merde@fr,Piece of shit,Porción de mierda@es,Portion of dung,Portion of excrement,Portion of faeces,Portion of fecal material,Portion of fecal matter,Portion of feces,Portion of guano,Portion of scat,Portionem cacas,Scat,Spoor,Spraint,Stool,Teil der fäkalien@de,Feces
Condition The experimental condition / phenotype studied according to the Experimental Factor Ontology
antimicrobial agent antibiotic,antibiotics,Antibiotika,Antibiotikum,antibiotique,antimicrobial,antimicrobial agents,microbicide,microbicides,antimicrobial agent
Group 0 name Corresponds to the control (unexposed) group for case-control studies
or placebo (microcrystalline cellulose)
Group 1 name Corresponds to the case (exposed) group for case-control studies
oral intake of vancomycin (directed against Gram-positive bacteria)
Group 1 definition Diagnostic criteria applied to define the specific condition / phenotype represented in the case (exposed) group
low-active (<3 hr organized sports activities per week), weight-stable (<2 kg body weight change 3 months prior to inclusion) overweight/obese (BMI 25–35 kg/m2) Caucasian men, between 35 and 70 years with impaired glucose metabolism (either fasting glucose >5.6 mmol/l, and/or 2 hr glucose between 7.8–11 mmol/l) and insulin resistant (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance; HOMA-IR > 2.2).
Group 0 sample size Number of subjects in the control (unexposed) group
Group 1 sample size Number of subjects in the case (exposed) group
Antibiotics exclusion Number of days without antibiotics usage (if applicable) and other antibiotics-related criteria used to exclude participants (if any)
3 months

Lab analysis

Sequencing type
Sequencing platform Manufacturer and experimental platform used for quantifying microbial abundance
Human Intestinal Tract Chip

Statistical Analysis

Statistical test
Mann-Whitney (Wilcoxon)
Significance threshold p-value or FDR threshold used for differential abundance testing (if any)
MHT correction Have statistical tests be corrected for multiple hypothesis testing (MHT)?

Alpha Diversity

Inverse Simpson Modification of Simpsons index D as 1/D to obtain high values in datasets of high diversity and vice versa

Signature 1

Reviewed Marked as Reviewed by Rimsha Azhar on 2021/02/09

Curated date: 2021/01/10

Curator: Mst Afroza Parvin

Revision editor(s): Lwaldron, WikiWorks

Source: Table S1

Description: Significantly different microbial taxa after 7 days intervention with vancomycin and placebo in feces using linear mixed models

Abundance in Group 1: increased abundance in oral intake of vancomycin (directed against Gram-positive bacteria)

NCBI Links
Anaerostipes caccae
Anaerovorax odorimutans
Blautia obeum
Coprococcus eutactus
Dorea formicigenerans
Eggerthella lenta
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii
Lachnobacterium bovis
Lachnospira pectinoschiza
Lacrimispora sphenoides
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum
Papillibacter cinnamivorans
Ruminococcus bromii
[Clostridium] nexile
[Clostridium] cellulosi

Revision editor(s): Lwaldron, WikiWorks