The impact of postnatal antibiotics on the preterm intestinal microbiome

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Dardas M, Gill SR, Grier A, Pryhuber GS, Gill AL, Lee YH, Guillet R
Pediatric research
BACKGROUND: Development of the intestinal microbiome in preterm infants has significant impact on infant health. Our objective was to determine if duration of antibiotics within the first 10 and 30 d after birth affects the intestinal microbiome. METHODS: Subjects were 24 0/7-31 6/7 wk of gestational age who received ≥ 50% breast milk and a total of ≥ 100 ml/kg of feeds by 10 d. Rectal (fecal) swabs were collected at 10 and 30 d and analyzed by 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. At both time points, we examined the rectal microbiome from infants who received only 2 d of antibiotics and those who received at least 7 d of antibiotics. RESULTS: In the 29 infants enrolled in our study, we found a decrease in diversity index from 10 d samples in those who received more antibiotics. Such difference in diversity and richness was not as pronounced in 30 d samples. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were most abundant in the 10 d samples. While these two phyla remained dominant in 30 d samples, there was an increase in Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. CONCLUSION: Despite antibiotic therapy, neonates continued to acquire bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. The process of bacterial acquisition is perturbed with the use of antibiotics.

Experiment 1

Needs review

Curated date: 2021/01/10

Curator: WikiWorks743

Revision editor(s): WikiWorks753, WikiWorks743


Location of subjects
United States of America
Host species Species from which microbiome was sampled (if applicable)
Homo sapiens
Body site Anatomical site where microbial samples were extracted from according to the Uber Anatomy Ontology
Feces Cow dung,Cow pat,Droppings,Dung,Excrement,Excreta,Faeces,Fecal material,Fecal matter,Fewmet,Frass,Guano,Matières fécales@fr,Merde@fr,Ordure,Partie de la merde@fr,Piece of shit,Porción de mierda@es,Portion of dung,Portion of excrement,Portion of faeces,Portion of fecal material,Portion of fecal matter,Portion of feces,Portion of guano,Portion of scat,Portionem cacas,Scat,Spoor,Spraint,Stool,Teil der fäkalien@de,Feces
Condition The experimental condition / phenotype studied according to the Experimental Factor Ontology
antimicrobial agent antibiotic,antibiotics,Antibiotika,Antibiotikum,antibiotique,antimicrobial,antimicrobial agents,microbicide,microbicides,antimicrobial agent
Group 0 name Corresponds to the control (unexposed) group for case-control studies
10 d old 2 day treatment infants
Group 1 name Corresponds to the case (exposed) group for case-control studies
10 d old 7-10 day treatment infants
Group 1 definition Diagnostic criteria applied to define the specific condition / phenotype represented in the case (exposed) group
born at gestational ages less than 32 weeks
Group 0 sample size Number of subjects in the control (unexposed) group
Group 1 sample size Number of subjects in the case (exposed) group

Lab analysis

Sequencing type
16S variable region One or more hypervariable region(s) of the bacterial 16S gene
Sequencing platform Manufacturer and experimental platform used for quantifying microbial abundance

Statistical Analysis

MHT correction Have statistical tests be corrected for multiple hypothesis testing (MHT)?

Confounders controlled for Confounding factors that have been accounted for by stratification or model adjustment
delivery procedure

Alpha Diversity

Shannon Estimator of species richness and species evenness: more weight on species richness
Richness Number of species

Signature 1

Needs review

Curated date: 2020-06-23

Curator: Mst Afroza Parvin

Revision editor(s): WikiWorks743

Source: Table 2, table 3

Description: Characteristics and outcomes of breast milk–fed infants at age 10 d & 30 d

Abundance in Group 1: decreased abundance in 10 d old 7-10 day treatment infants

NCBI Links

Revision editor(s): WikiWorks743