Gut microbiota in Parkinson disease in a northern German cohort
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Hopfner F, Künstner A, Müller SH, Künzel S, Zeuner KE, Margraf NG, Deuschl G, Baines JF, Kuhlenbäumer G
Pathologic and epidemiologic studies suggest that Parkinson disease (PD) may in some cases start in the enteric nervous system and spread via the vagal nerve to the brainstem. Mounting evidence suggests that the gut microbiome plays an important role in the communication between gut and brain and that alteration of the gut microbiome is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, including Parkinson disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether Parkinson disease is associated with qualitative or quantitative changes in the gut microbiome. We analyzed the gut microbiome in 29 PD cases and 29 age-matched controls by next-generation-sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and compared diversity indices and bacterial abundances between cases and controls. Alpha diversity measures and the abundance of major phyla did not differ between cases and controls. Beta diversity analyses and analysis on the bacterial family level revealed significant differences between cases and controls for four bacterial families. In keeping with recently published studies, Lactobacillaceae were more abundant in cases. Barnesiellaceae and Enterococcacea were also more abundant in cases in this study but not in other studies. Larger studies, accounting for drug effects and further functional investigations of the gut microbiome are necessary to delineate the role of the gut microbiome in the pathogenesis of PD.
- Location of subjects
- Host species Species from which microbiome was sampled (if applicable)
- Homo sapiens
- Body site Anatomical site where microbial samples were extracted from according to the Uber Anatomy Ontology
- Feces Cow dung,Cow pat,Droppings,Dung,Excrement,Excreta,Faeces,Fecal material,Fecal matter,Fewmet,Frass,Guano,Matières fécales@fr,Merde@fr,Ordure,Partie de la merde@fr,Piece of shit,Porción de mierda@es,Portion of dung,Portion of excrement,Portion of faeces,Portion of fecal material,Portion of fecal matter,Portion of feces,Portion of guano,Portion of scat,Portionem cacas,Scat,Spoor,Spraint,Stool,Teil der fäkalien@de,Feces
- Condition The experimental condition / phenotype studied according to the Experimental Factor Ontology
- Parkinson's disease IDIOPATHIC PARKINSON DIS,Idiopathic Parkinson Disease,Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease,IDIOPATHIC PARKINSONS DIS,Idiopathic PD,LEWY BODY PARKINSON DIS,Lewy Body Parkinson Disease,Lewy Body Parkinson's Disease,Paralysis agitans,paralysis agitans,PARKINSON DIS,PARKINSON DIS IDIOPATHIC,Parkinson disease,Parkinson Disease, Idiopathic,Parkinson syndrome,Parkinson's,Parkinson's disease,Parkinson's disease (disorder),Parkinson's disease NOS,Parkinson's disease NOS (disorder),Parkinson's Disease, Idiopathic,Parkinson's Disease, Lewy Body,Parkinson's syndrome,Parkinsonian disorder,Parkinsonism, Primary,Parkinsons,PARKINSONS DIS,PARKINSONS DIS IDIOPATHIC,PARKINSONS DIS LEWY BODY,Parkinsons disease,Primary Parkinsonism
- Group 0 name Corresponds to the control (unexposed) group for case-control studies
- Healthy controls.
- Group 1 name Corresponds to the case (exposed) group for case-control studies
- Participants with Parkinson's Disease.
- Group 1 definition Diagnostic criteria applied to define the specific condition / phenotype represented in the case (exposed) group
- Participants diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease by a movement disorder specialist in the clinic according to the UK Parkinson’s Disease Society Brain Bank Clinical Diagnostic Criteria.
- Group 0 sample size Number of subjects in the control (unexposed) group
- Group 1 sample size Number of subjects in the case (exposed) group
- Antibiotics exclusion Number of days without antibiotics usage (if applicable) and other antibiotics-related criteria used to exclude participants (if any)
- Antibiotic use within the last three months and COMT inhibitors.
- Sequencing type
- 16S variable region One or more hypervariable region(s) of the bacterial 16S gene
- Sequencing platform Manufacturer and experimental platform used for quantifying microbial abundance
- Data transformation Data transformation applied to microbial abundance measurements prior to differential abundance testing (if any).
- relative abundances
- Significance threshold p-value or FDR threshold used for differential abundance testing (if any)
- Matched on Factors on which subjects have been matched on in a case-control study
- Shannon Estimator of species richness and species evenness: more weight on species richness
- Chao1 Abundance-based estimator of species richness
- Simpson Estimator of species richness and species evenness: more weight on species evenness
Source: Table 1.
Description: Comparison of p-values of bacteria associated with PD in this study or in previous studies. Significant p-values ( 0.05) in bold print, in brackets: without patients taking COMT- inhibitors.
Abundance in Group 1: increased abundance in Participants with Parkinson's Disease.
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