Altered infective competence of the human gut microbiome in COVID-19
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- Retracted paper
- Contamination issues suspected
- Batch effect issues suspected
- Uncontrolled confounding suspected
- Results are suspect (various reasons)
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de Nies L, Galata V, Martin-Gallausiaux C, Despotovic M, Busi SB, Snoeck CJ, Delacour L, Budagavi DP, Laczny CC, Habier J, Lupu PC, Halder R, Fritz JV, Marques T, Sandt E, O'Sullivan MP, Ghosh S, Satagopam V, Krüger R, Fagherazzi G, Ollert M, Hefeng FQ, May P, Wilmes P
BACKGROUND: Infections with SARS-CoV-2 have a pronounced impact on the gastrointestinal tract and its resident microbiome. Clear differences between severe cases of infection and healthy individuals have been reported, including the loss of commensal taxa. We aimed to understand if microbiome alterations including functional shifts are unique to severe cases or a common effect of COVID-19. We used high-resolution systematic multi-omic analyses to profile the gut microbiome in asymptomatic-to-moderate COVID-19 individuals compared to a control group. RESULTS: We found a striking increase in the overall abundance and expression of both virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance genes in COVID-19. Importantly, these genes are encoded and expressed by commensal taxa from families such as Acidaminococcaceae and Erysipelatoclostridiaceae, which we found to be enriched in COVID-19-positive individuals. We also found an enrichment in the expression of a betaherpesvirus and rotavirus C genes in COVID-19-positive individuals compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses identified an altered and increased infective competence of the gut microbiome in COVID-19 patients. Video Abstract.
DESeq2 LEfSe Mann-Whitney (Wilcoxon) Spearman Correlation
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- Location of subjects
- United States of America
- Host species Species from which microbiome was sampled (if applicable)
- Homo sapiens
- Body site Anatomical site where microbial samples were extracted from according to the Uber Anatomy Ontology
- Feces Cow dung,Cow pat,Droppings,Dung,Excrement,Excreta,Faeces,Fecal material,Fecal matter,Fewmet,Frass,Guano,Matières fécales@fr,Merde@fr,Ordure,Partie de la merde@fr,Piece of shit,Porción de mierda@es,Portion of dung,Portion of excrement,Portion of faeces,Portion of fecal material,Portion of fecal matter,Portion of feces,Portion of guano,Portion of scat,Portionem cacas,Scat,Spoor,Spraint,Stool,Teil der fäkalien@de,Feces
- Condition The experimental condition / phenotype studied according to the Experimental Factor Ontology
- COVID-19 2019 novel coronavirus,2019 novel coronavirus infection,2019-nCoV,2019-nCoV infection,beta-CoV,beta-CoVs,betacoronavirus,coronavirus disease 2019,SARS-coronavirus 2,SARS-CoV-2,severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2,severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infectious disease,β-coronavirus,β-CoV,β-CoVs,COVID-19
- Group 0 name Corresponds to the control (unexposed) group for case-control studies
- Control group
- Group 1 name Corresponds to the case (exposed) group for case-control studies
- COVID-19 infection cases.
- Group 1 definition Diagnostic criteria applied to define the specific condition / phenotype represented in the case (exposed) group
- These individuals had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by a positive RT-PCR test result and presented with COVID-19 symptoms such as fever, cough, and difficulty breathing.
- Group 0 sample size Number of subjects in the control (unexposed) group
- Group 1 sample size Number of subjects in the case (exposed) group
- Antibiotics exclusion Number of days without antibiotics usage (if applicable) and other antibiotics-related criteria used to exclude participants (if any)
- Those who received antibiotics three months before the study were excluded. This exclusion took place because using antibiotic can significantly alter the composition and function of the gut microbiome, and the researchers wanted to be sure that all the differences noticed in gut microbiome between COVID-19 patients and healthy controls were not just simply due to antibiotic use.
- Sequencing type
- Sequencing platform Manufacturer and experimental platform used for quantifying microbial abundance
- Data transformation Data transformation applied to microbial abundance measurements prior to differential abundance testing (if any).
- relative abundances
- MHT correction Have statistical tests be corrected for multiple hypothesis testing (MHT)?
- LDA Score above Threshold for the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) score for studies using the popular LEfSe tool
- Matched on Factors on which subjects have been matched on in a case-control study
- body mass index, antibiotic exposure, sex, Matched on: "Age" is not in the list (abnormal glucose tolerance, acetaldehyde, acute graft vs. host disease, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, adenoma, age, AIDS, alcohol consumption measurement, alcohol drinking, ...) of allowed values.Age
- Confounders controlled for Confounding factors that have been accounted for by stratification or model adjustment
- diet, Confounders controlled for: "Disease severity" is not in the list (abnormal glucose tolerance, acetaldehyde, acute graft vs. host disease, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, adenoma, age, AIDS, alcohol consumption measurement, alcohol drinking, ...) of allowed values.Disease severity, Confounders controlled for: "Medication use" is not in the list (abnormal glucose tolerance, acetaldehyde, acute graft vs. host disease, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, adenoma, age, AIDS, alcohol consumption measurement, alcohol drinking, ...) of allowed values.Medication use, Confounders controlled for: "Comorbidities" is not in the list (abnormal glucose tolerance, acetaldehyde, acute graft vs. host disease, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, adenoma, age, AIDS, alcohol consumption measurement, alcohol drinking, ...) of allowed values.Comorbidities
- Pielou Quantifies how equal the community is numerically
- Shannon Estimator of species richness and species evenness: more weight on species richness
- Chao1 Abundance-based estimator of species richness
- Simpson Estimator of species richness and species evenness: more weight on species evenness
- Inverse Simpson Modification of Simpsons index D as 1/D to obtain high values in datasets of high diversity and vice versa
- Richness Number of species
- Faith Phylogenetic diversity, takes into account phylogenetic distance of all taxa identified in a sample
Source: Figure 2B
Description: Differentially increased taxa in Group 1
Abundance in Group 1: increased abundance in COVID-19 infection cases.
|Firmicutes bacterium AM10-47|
|Prevotella sp. CAG:520|
|Roseburia sp. CAG:471|
Revision editor(s): Busayo
Source: Figure 2C
Description: Differentially decreased taxa in Group 1
Abundance in Group 1: decreased abundance in COVID-19 infection cases.
|Firmicutes bacterium CAG:145|
Revision editor(s): Busayo
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