Parkinson's Disease and the Gut Microbiome in Rural California
PMID PubMed identifier for scientific articles.
DOI Digital object identifier for electronic documents.
Zhang K, Paul KC, Jacobs JP, Chou HL, Duarte Folle A, Del Rosario I, Yu Y, Bronstein JM, Keener AM, Ritz B
Journal of Parkinson's disease
Parkinson’s disease, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, brain-gut axis, gut microbiome
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence connects the gut microbiome to Parkinson's disease (PD) etiology, but little is known about microbial contributions to PD progression and its clinical features. OBJECTIVE: We aim to explore the association between the gut microbiome with PD, and the microbial association with PD-specific clinical features. METHODS: In a community-based case-control study of 96 PD patients and 74 controls, microbiome data were obtained from 16S rRNA gene sequencing of fecal samples, and analyzed for microbial diversity, taxa abundance, and predicted functional pathways that differed in PD patients and controls, and their association with PD-specific features (disease duration, motor subtypes, L-DOPA daily dose, and motor function). RESULTS: PD patients' gut microbiome showed lower species diversity (p = 0.04) and were compositionally different (p = 0.002) compared to controls but had a higher abundance of three phyla (Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobiota, Actinobacteria) and five genera (Akkermansia, Enterococcus, Hungatella, and two Ruminococcaceae) controlling for sex, race, age, and sequencing platform. Also, 35 Metacyc pathways were predicted to be differentially expressed in PD patients including biosynthesis, compound degradation/utilization/assimilation, generation of metabolites and energy, and glycan pathways. Additionally, the postural instability gait dysfunction subtype was associated with three phyla and the NAD biosynthesis pathway. PD duration was associated with the Synergistota phylum, six genera, and the aromatic compound degradation pathways. Two genera were associated with motor function. CONCLUSION: PD patients differed from controls in gut microbiome composition and its predicted metagenome. Clinical features were also associated with bacterial taxa and altered metabolic pathways of interest for PD progression.
- Location of subjects
- United States of America
- Host species Species from which microbiome was sampled (if applicable)
- Homo sapiens
- Body site Anatomical site where microbial samples were extracted from according to the Uber Anatomy Ontology
- Feces Cow dung,Cow pat,Droppings,Dung,Excrement,Excreta,Faeces,Fecal material,Fecal matter,Fewmet,Frass,Guano,Matières fécales@fr,Merde@fr,Ordure,Partie de la merde@fr,Piece of shit,Porción de mierda@es,Portion of dung,Portion of excrement,Portion of faeces,Portion of fecal material,Portion of fecal matter,Portion of feces,Portion of guano,Portion of scat,Portionem cacas,Scat,Spoor,Spraint,Stool,Teil der fäkalien@de,Feces
- Condition The experimental condition / phenotype studied according to the Experimental Factor Ontology
- Parkinson's disease IDIOPATHIC PARKINSON DIS,Idiopathic Parkinson Disease,Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease,IDIOPATHIC PARKINSONS DIS,Idiopathic PD,LEWY BODY PARKINSON DIS,Lewy Body Parkinson Disease,Lewy Body Parkinson's Disease,Paralysis agitans,paralysis agitans,PARKINSON DIS,PARKINSON DIS IDIOPATHIC,Parkinson disease,Parkinson Disease, Idiopathic,Parkinson syndrome,Parkinson's,Parkinson's disease,Parkinson's disease (disorder),Parkinson's disease NOS,Parkinson's disease NOS (disorder),Parkinson's Disease, Idiopathic,Parkinson's Disease, Lewy Body,Parkinson's syndrome,Parkinsonian disorder,Parkinsonism, Primary,Parkinsons,PARKINSONS DIS,PARKINSONS DIS IDIOPATHIC,PARKINSONS DIS LEWY BODY,Parkinsons disease,Primary Parkinsonism
- Group 0 name Corresponds to the control (unexposed) group for case-control studies
- Healthy controls.
- Group 1 name Corresponds to the case (exposed) group for case-control studies
- Parkinson's Disease subjects.
- Group 1 definition Diagnostic criteria applied to define the specific condition / phenotype represented in the case (exposed) group
- Participants newly diagnosed with Parkinson's Disease (within 3–5 years).
- Group 0 sample size Number of subjects in the control (unexposed) group
- Group 1 sample size Number of subjects in the case (exposed) group
- Antibiotics exclusion Number of days without antibiotics usage (if applicable) and other antibiotics-related criteria used to exclude participants (if any)
- Participants were required to not have taken antibiotics within the past 3 months.
- Sequencing type
- 16S variable region One or more hypervariable region(s) of the bacterial 16S gene
- Sequencing platform Manufacturer and experimental platform used for quantifying microbial abundance
- Data transformation Data transformation applied to microbial abundance measurements prior to differential abundance testing (if any).
- relative abundances
- Significance threshold p-value or FDR threshold used for differential abundance testing (if any)
- Confounders controlled for Confounding factors that have been accounted for by stratification or model adjustment
- sex, race, age, Confounders controlled for: "sequencing platform" is not in the list (abnormal glucose tolerance, acetaldehyde, acute graft vs. host disease, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, adenoma, age, AIDS, alcohol consumption measurement, alcohol drinking, ...) of allowed values.sequencing platform
- Shannon Estimator of species richness and species evenness: more weight on species richness
Source: Table 2.
Description: Differential taxa abundance associated with PD compared to controls (N=170).
Abundance in Group 1: increased abundance in Parkinson's Disease subjects.
Revision editor(s): Fcuevas3
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