Vaginal microbiome in early pregnancy and subsequent risk of spontaneous preterm birth: a case-control study

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Reviewed Marked as Reviewed by Atrayees on 2023-7-12
study design
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Tabatabaei N, Eren AM, Barreiro LB, Yotova V, Dumaine A, Allard C, Fraser WD
BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology
16S rRNA, Lactobacillus, bacterial vaginosis, preterm birth, vaginal microbiome
OBJECTIVES: To explore differences in the vaginal microbiome between preterm and term deliveries. DESIGN: Nested case-control study in 3D cohort (design, develop, discover). SETTING: Quebec, Canada. SAMPLE: Ninety-four women with spontaneous preterm birth as cases [17 early (<34 weeks) and 77 late (34-36 weeks) preterm birth] and 356 women as controls with term delivery (≥37 weeks). METHODS: To assess the vaginal microbiome by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene in swabs self-collected during early pregnancy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Comparison of relative abundance of bacterial operational taxonomic units and oligotypes and identifying vaginal community state types (CSTs) in early or late spontaneous preterm and term deliveries. RESULTS: Lactobacillus gasseri/ Lactobacillus johnsonii (coefficient -5.36, 95% CI -8.07 to -2.65), Lactobacillus crispatus (99%)/ Lactobacillus acidophilus (99%) (-4.58, 95% CI -6.20 to -2.96), Lactobacillus iners (99%)/ Ralstonia solanacearum (99%) (-3.98, 95% CI -6.48 to -1.47) and Bifidobacterium longum/ Bifidobacterium breve (-8.84, 95% CI -12.96 to -4.73) were associated with decreased risk of early but not late preterm birth. Six vaginal CSTs were identified: four dominated by Lactobacillus; one with presence of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria (Gardnerella vaginalis, Atopobium vaginae and Veillonellaceae bacterium) (CST IV); and one with nondominance of Lactobacillus (CST VI). CST IV was associated with increased risk of early (4.22, 95% CI 1.24-24.85) but not late (1.63, 95% CI 0.68-5.04) preterm birth, compared with CST VI. CONCLUSIONS: Lactobacillus gasseri/L. johnsonii, L. crispatus/L. acidophilus, L. iners/R. solanacearum and B. longum/B. breve may be associated with decreased risk of early preterm birth. A bacterial vaginosis-related vaginal CST versus a CST nondominated by Lactobacillus may be associated with increased risk of early preterm birth. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Largest study of its kind finds certain species of vaginal Lactobacillus + Bifidobacterium may relate to lower risk of preterm birth.

Experiment 1

Reviewed Marked as Reviewed by Atrayees on 2023-7-12

Curated date: 2021/01/10

Curator: WikiWorks

Revision editor(s): WikiWorks, Atrayees


Location of subjects
Host species Species from which microbiome was sampled. Contact us to have more species added.
Homo sapiens
Body site Anatomical site where microbial samples were extracted from according to the Uber Anatomy Ontology
Vagina Vagina,vagina,Distal oviductal region,Distal portion of oviduct,Vaginae
Condition The experimental condition / phenotype studied according to the Experimental Factor Ontology
Premature birth Birth, Premature,Birth, Preterm,Births, Premature,Births, Preterm,Premature Births,Preterm Birth,Preterm Births,Premature birth,premature birth
Group 0 name Corresponds to the control (unexposed) group for case-control studies
mothers whose newborns were delivered at ≥37 getastional weeks
Group 1 name Corresponds to the case (exposed) group for case-control studies
mothers whose newborns were delivered at <34 gestational week
Group 0 sample size Number of subjects in the control (unexposed) group
Group 1 sample size Number of subjects in the case (exposed) group

Lab analysis

Sequencing type
16S variable region One or more hypervariable region(s) of the bacterial 16S gene
Sequencing platform Manufacturer and experimental platform used for quantifying microbial abundance

Statistical Analysis

Data transformation Data transformation applied to microbial abundance measurements prior to differential abundance testing (if any).
relative abundances
Statistical test
Significance threshold p-value or FDR threshold used for differential abundance testing (if any)
MHT correction Have statistical tests be corrected for multiple hypothesis testing (MHT)?
Confounders controlled for Confounding factors that have been accounted for by stratification or model adjustment
body mass index, ethnic group, smoking behavior, maternal age, parity

Signature 1

Reviewed Marked as Reviewed by Atrayees on 2023-7-12

Curated date: 2021/01/10

Curator: Shaimaa Elsafoury

Revision editor(s): WikiWorks

Source: Table 2 & S2

Description: Vaginal microbial oligotype differential relative abundance composition between pregnant women who had early (<34 weeks of gestation) preterm versus full term (≥37 weeks gestation) deliveries

Abundance in Group 1: decreased abundance in mothers whose newborns were delivered at <34 gestational week

NCBI Quality ControlLinks
Lactobacillus gasseri
Lactobacillus johnsonii
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum
Bifidobacterium breve
Lactobacillus acidophilus
Lactobacillus crispatus
Lactobacillus iners
Ralstonia solanacearum

Revision editor(s): WikiWorks