Antibiotics at birth and later antibiotic courses: effects on gut microbiota

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Reviewed Marked as Reviewed by Fatima on 2022/03/2
study design
PMID PubMed identifier for scientific articles.
DOI Digital object identifier for electronic documents.
URI Uniform resource identifier for web resources.
Ainonen S, Tejesvi MV, Mahmud MR, Paalanne N, Pokka T, Li W, Nelson KE, Salo J, Renko M, Vänni P, Pirttilä AM, Tapiainen T
Pediatric research
BACKGROUND: Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) is widely used, but the evidence of the long-term effects on the gut microbiota and subsequent health of children is limited. Here, we compared the impacts of perinatal antibiotic exposure and later courses of antibiotic courses on gut microbiota. METHODS: This was a prospective, controlled cohort study among 100 vaginally delivered infants with different perinatal antibiotic exposures: control (27), IAP (27), postnatal antibiotics (24), and IAP and postnatal antibiotics (22). At 1 year of age, we performed next-generation sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene of fecal samples. RESULTS: Exposure to the perinatal antibiotics had a clear impact on the gut microbiota. The abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum was significantly higher in the control group, whereas the relative abundance of Escherichia coli was significantly lower in the control group. The impact of the perinatal antibiotics on the gut microbiota composition was greater than exposure to later courses of antibiotics (28% of participants). CONCLUSIONS: Perinatal antibiotic exposure had a marked impact on the gut microbiota at the age of 1 year. The timing of the antibiotic exposure appears to be the critical factor for the changes observed in the gut microbiota. IMPACT: Infants are commonly exposed to IAP and postnatal antibiotics, and later to courses of antibiotics during the first year of life. Perinatal antibiotics have been associated with an altered gut microbiota during the first months of life, whereas the evidence regarding the long-term impact is more limited. Perinatal antibiotic exposure had a marked impact on the infant's gut microbiota at 1 year of age. Impact of the perinatal antibiotics on the gut microbiota composition was greater than that of the later courses of antibiotics at the age of 1 year.

Experiment 1

Needs review

Curated date: 2021/12/03

Curator: Mmarin

Revision editor(s): LGeistlinger, Fatima, Mmarin, WikiWorks


Location of subjects
Host species Species from which microbiome was sampled (if applicable)
Homo sapiens
Body site Anatomical site where microbial samples were extracted from according to the Uber Anatomy Ontology
Feces Cow dung,Cow pat,Droppings,Dung,Excrement,Excreta,Faeces,Fecal material,Fecal matter,Fewmet,Frass,Guano,Matières fécales@fr,Merde@fr,Ordure,Partie de la merde@fr,Piece of shit,Porción de mierda@es,Portion of dung,Portion of excrement,Portion of faeces,Portion of fecal material,Portion of fecal matter,Portion of feces,Portion of guano,Portion of scat,Portionem cacas,Scat,Spoor,Spraint,Stool,Teil der fäkalien@de,Feces
Condition The experimental condition / phenotype studied according to the Experimental Factor Ontology
antimicrobial agent antibiotic,antibiotics,Antibiotika,Antibiotikum,antibiotique,antimicrobial,antimicrobial agents,microbicide,microbicides,antimicrobial agent
Group 0 name Corresponds to the control (unexposed) group for case-control studies
Control group
Group 1 name Corresponds to the case (exposed) group for case-control studies
perinatal antibiotics
Group 1 definition Diagnostic criteria applied to define the specific condition / phenotype represented in the case (exposed) group
postnatal antibiotics during the first week of life, or to any maternal antibiotics within 1 week before delivery, the IAP group received only IAP (n=27), the postnatal group was exposed to empirical postnatal intravenous antibiotics within 24 h after birth (n=24), and the IAP + postnatal group received both IAP and postnatal intravenous antibiotics (n=22)
Group 0 sample size Number of subjects in the control (unexposed) group
Group 1 sample size Number of subjects in the case (exposed) group

Lab analysis

Sequencing type
Sequencing platform Manufacturer and experimental platform used for quantifying microbial abundance
Ion Torrent

Statistical Analysis

Statistical test
Significance threshold p-value or FDR threshold used for differential abundance testing (if any)

Alpha Diversity

Pielou Quantifies how equal the community is numerically
Shannon Estimator of species richness and species evenness: more weight on species richness