Association Between Breastmilk Microbiota and Food Allergy in Infants
diseases early in life. The composition of breastmilk is complex, comprising varying levels of oligosaccharides, immunoactive molecules, vitamins, metabolites, and microbes. Although several studies have examined the relationship between different components of breastmilk and infant food allergies, few have investigated the relationship between microorganisms in breastmilk and infant food allergy. In the present study, we selected 135 healthy pregnant women and their full-term newborns from a cohort of 202 mother– infant pairs. Among them, 69 infants were exclusively breastfed until 6 mo after birth. At follow-up, 11 of the 69 infants developed a food allergy in infancy while 22 showed no signs of allergy. Thirty-three breastmilk samples were collected within 1 mo after delivery, and 123 infant fecal samples were collected at five time points following their birth. These samples were analyzed using microbial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The abundance and evenness of the milk microbiota and the number of differential bacteria were higher in the breastmilk samples from the non-allergy group than in those from the food allergy group. The non-allergy group showed relatively high abundance of Bifidobacterium, Akkermansia, Clostridium IV, Clostridium XIVa, Veillonella, and butyrate-producing bacteria such as Fusobacterium, Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis, Roseburia, and Ruminococcus. In contrast, the abundance of Proteobacteria, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas in breastmilk was higher in the food allergy group. A comparison of the changes in dominant differential breastmilk microbiota in the intestinal flora of the two groups of infants over time revealed that the changes in Bifidobacterium abundance were consistent with those in the breastmilk flora. Functional pathway prediction of breastmilk microflora showed that the enhancement of the metabolic pathways of tyrosine, tryptophan, and fatty acids was significantly different between the groups. We suggest that changes in the breastmilk microbiota can influence the development of food allergies. Breastmilk contains several microbes that have protective effects against food allergies, both by influencing the colonization of intestinal microbiota and by producing butyrate. This study may provide new ideas for improving infant health through early intervention with probiotics.
- Location of subjects
- Host species Species from which microbiome was sampled. Contact us to have more species added.
- Homo sapiens
- Group 0 name Corresponds to the control (unexposed) group for case-control studies
- non-allergy (NA) group
- Group 1 name Corresponds to the case (exposed) group for case-control studies
- food allergy (FA) group
- Group 1 definition Diagnostic criteria applied to define the specific condition / phenotype represented in the case (exposed) group
- Group with food allergy.
- Group 0 sample size Number of subjects in the control (unexposed) group
- Group 1 sample size Number of subjects in the case (exposed) group
- Antibiotics exclusion Number of days without antibiotics usage (if applicable) and other antibiotics-related criteria used to exclude participants (if any)
- use of antibiotics or probiotics for 2 weeks before or after delivery, resulted in being excluded from the study
- Sequencing type
- 16S variable region One or more hypervariable region(s) of the bacterial 16S gene
- Sequencing platform Manufacturer and experimental platform used for quantifying microbial abundance
- Non-quantitative PCR
- Data transformation Data transformation applied to microbial abundance measurements prior to differential abundance testing (if any).
- relative abundances
- Statistical test
- Significance threshold p-value or FDR threshold used for differential abundance testing (if any)
- LDA Score above Threshold for the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) score for studies using the popular LEfSe tool
- Matched on Factors on which subjects have been matched on in a case-control study
- gestational age, maternal age, race
- Shannon Estimator of species richness and species evenness: more weight on species richness
- Chao1 Abundance-based estimator of species richness
- Inverse Simpson Modification of Simpsons index D as 1/D to obtain high values in datasets of high diversity and vice versa
- Richness Number of species
Source: Figure 4A
Description: LEfSe analysis between the food allergy (FA) and non-allergy (NA) groups, showing genera with absolute values of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) score.
Abundance in Group 1: increased abundance in food allergy (FA) group
Revision editor(s): Davvve
Source: fig 4
Description: LEfSe analysis between the food allergy (FA) and non-allergy (NA) groups, showing genera with absolute values of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) score
Abundance in Group 1: decreased abundance in food allergy (FA) group
Revision editor(s): Davvve